Pedro II remained in power until he was forcibly removed by a Republican military coup on 15 November 1889. The leader of this coup eventually became Brazil’s first president through the system of military advancement. His name was General Deodoro da Fonseca. Under his directorship, the country became known as the Republic of the United States of Brazil. It stayed such until as late as 1967, when it was named the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The government remained a constitutional democracy. In this form of political rule, majority rule is balanced by the rights of individuals. During this time, São Paulo and Minas Gerais alternated as the dominant states.
Pedro II (1825 - 1891), the emperor of Brazil, seen alongside his wife. He succeeded his father, Pedro I, on his abdication in 1831, reigning until the 1889 revolution drove him to Europe. He died in Paris in 1891. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) Emperor Pedro II of Brazil|Empress Teresa of Brazil.
Up until the late 1800’s, sugar had been Brazil’s main crop and income generator in terms of exports. However, as the 20th century drew closer, coffee soon overtook sugar as the main export crop, transforming Brazil’s economic status to one of booming success. Hoards of Europeans relocated to this South American country for their share in the economic abundance. As these ones increased the labour force exponentially, the country was then able to expand its industrial reaches, having to move further inland to accommodate the ever-increasing need for space and resources.
In 1930, this existing political era came to a grinding halt when a military coup placed Getúlio Vargas in the presidency. Although a civilian, Vargas was the dictator, elected president, dictator again, senator and then elected president respectively for 24 years, until he took his own life in 1954. During his rulership, Brazil continued to grow and develop; moving away from the coastal areas and developing the inland regions too. Vargas was fairly manipulative in his approach to rulership, using his understanding of working interpersonal relationships to secure the people’s loyalty.
The 1930’s and 1940’s in Brazil were marked by a period of corporatism (where workers and employers are categorised into professional corporations that are subordinate to the state). The following two decades (the 1950’s and 1960’s) were classified as developmentalist (using export goods to create a significant world economy, regardless of what they have to charge for these goods to do so) and nationalist (where one nation or culture is encouraged to strive for political and national superiority).
During the time from 1945 to 1964, the capital was moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.
During the 1950’s and 1960’s, the military began to focus on domestic revolutionary warfare against enemies of Brazil. The next phase was known as “New Professionalism” and declared, as its main objective, the desire to prepare civilians and those in the military to perform executive and advisory functions. This had been a movement that was long encouraged by the United States of America, who urged South America to take action to ensure the building and safekeeping of their own nations.
During the 1960’s there was a distinct leftist movement, which was indicated by the lack of discipline shown on the parts of the enlisted men, the declining economy and the increased striking rates amongst the working class. During his rule from 1961 to 1964, the President of Brazil, João Goulart, had put economic and social reforms into action, which were very evidently not addressing the financial problems being faced by Brazil. He also actively alienated the military. By 1964, the military had had enough and decided to intervene. The United States of America were likely in support of this initiative.
The coup that resulted in the same year was considered to be revolutionary because it meant that the military snatched its power back and held onto it until 1985, when an elected president (Tancredo Neves) came into power.
Today, Brazil continues to struggle with financial distribution amongst and between its various classes. However, it also continues to see an ever-increasing number of tourists and foreign investors, fascinated by its potential and existing abundance. Being the Host City of the 2014 FIFA World Cup™ also puts Brazil in the optimal position to flourish as it showcases its beauty and variety to the world.