Acre

Acre is a state in the extreme south-west of the Northern Region of Brazil, which is bordered by Amazonas, Rondônia, Bolivia and the Ucayali Region (Peru). The capital of this state is the city of Rio Branco, which is nestled in the Valley of Acre and is the most populous city of the entire state. It has been the capital of the territory since 1920 and the state capital since 1962. Brazilians were originally attracted to the state of Acre for its rich mining activity.

During the period before the 1900’s, and even including the early years of the 20th century, Acre belonged to its neighbour, Bolivia. Still, since the early part of the 1800’s, Brazilians had been inhabiting the area, using its ample supply of rubber trees as an important source of income. Therefore, although the area was essentially Bolivia’s, there was, for a very long time, an extremely prominent Brazilian population here. In 1899, the Bolivian government and residents attempted to regain their control over their area, but the Brazilian migrants stood their ground, resulting in a number of bloody conflicts over land and territory.

Brazil finally achieved legal possession of the region of Acre in November of 1903, with the signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis. When Acre was made a state (after having been a territory) in 1962, it was the first state to be governed by a woman, Iolanda Fleming. During World War II, the rubber tree groves of Acre became instrumental as those in Malaysia were seized by Japan. Acre contributed their resources to the allies, effectively changing the course of history to a large degree.

Acre is 152 581 square kilometres (or 58 911 square miles) in area. Its terrain is mainly low sandstone plateau, which rises in tabular topography through Acre. More than 60% of the flat surface of the state is 200 to 300 metres above sea level. Acre has a hot, humid climate, typical of the jungle areas. However, Acre’s temperatures (which average at around 26 degrees Celsius during the day) are still the lowest of the entire Northern Region. The dry season is between June and August.

Acre is completely occupied by the exquisite Amazon Rainforest and is the home of an enormous number of valuable rubber trees, as well as Brazil’s largest number of nut trees. There are a number of rivers through Acre, including the Juruá, Tarauacá and Envira. The Amazon Rainforest is a very important part of the country’s vegetation, and represents over half of the world’s rainforests. It is one of the most plentiful and diverse habitats in terms of the array of wildlife and plant life that inhabit it. In fact, roughly a third of the world’s faunal and floral species can be found in this natural treasure chest.

Agriculture is a major source of income for Acre. This state exports goods like wood, wood products and poultry.

Here is the Acre Government web site: http://www.ac.gov.br/wps/portal/acre

Some more tourism related information here: http://www.brasilcontact.com/destinies/brazil_acre.html